Procedures

Washing dishes by hand is a fairly simple process and results are very obvious. However, a routine and some organization help get the job done quickly and efficiently EQUIPMENT AT THE SINK

Plastic Dishpan

A square, round or rectangular dishpan is helpful when a double sink is not available. Choose a size that leaves part of a single sink accessible for scraping or pre-rinsing dishes. A dishpan can be emptied and refilled quickly with hot water and detergent as needed. It has a softer surface than a sink, and breakage is less likely.

Rubber Mat

When washing directly in a sink, a mat helps cushion the bottom and reduces breakage.

Drain Rack

Made of plastic-coated wire, formed plastic or, occasionally, wood, racks are almost essential for draining rinsed dishes. With a drain tray under the rack to catch rinse water, dishes can be rinsed right in the rack with extra-hot water from a spray hose, pitcher or pan. When there’s a second sink large enough to hold a drain rack, no drain tray is necessary except perhaps for pans and other utensils. After a hot rinse, most dishes will air dry without wiping, saving a step. Cups, bowls, mugs and glasses need to be rinsed inside by immersion or under running water, then racked upside down for final rinsing.

Scrappers

A flexible plastic or rubber scraper can be used to quickly remove loose food soils from plates, casseroles and pans. Careful scraping largely eliminates any pre-rinsing of dishes.

Scrubbers

To remove crusty or hard residues, a wide variety of scrubbers is available. Plastic mesh, metal mesh, rough-surfaced sponges and cloths, steel wool soap pads and brushes all have their devotees.

Some plastic mesh and rough-textured sponges are gentle enough for scrubbing more delicate surfaces, such as non-stick pan finishes, shiny metals or china. Others are strictly heavy duty, and labels usually include cautions. Steel wool soap pads do an excellent job of removing discolouration and film from aluminum utensils, leaving them shiny.

Rubber Gloves

Gloves are helpful for hands sensitive to hot water, to minimize fingernail damage when scrubbing, and to give a better grip when washing breakable pieces.

Dishcloths, Sponges, Dish mops

These provide the basic washing action as each item is wiped clean with the detergent solution, all sides, inside and out. Each type has its advantages, but they all do the job.

Dishtowels

In addition to the traditional cotton towel, non-woven fibre cloths and even paper towels can be used to dry dishes, glassware, flatware and pans that are not air dried. Avoid a lint-shedding material.

Detergents and Special Cleaners

Liquid hand dishwashing detergents needed at the sink are described above.

Getting Organized

Clear a space on the counter next to the sink to stock scraped and/or pre-rinsed dishes. Flatware can be soaked briefly in a detergent solution. If any pots, pans or bakeware have been soaking in the sink during the meal, wash them first. Drain this soiled water away and use clean, hot water and detergent for the table service items and any remaining cookware.

Dirty dishes can be stacked on trays, then moved to the sink area as space becomes available. In most kitchens, it’s helpful to place the drain rack on the side of the sink that is nearer dish storage; stack dirty dishes on the opposite side.

Soaking

Wipe off any leftover food and grease from dishes and cookware using a rubber spatula or paper towels. Never pour grease down the drain; this can cause the drain to clog.

Soak dishes with greasy soils or stubborn baked-on or burned-on foods. To do this, add liquid hand dishwashing detergent or baking soda to the soiled utensils, then fill with hot water. If there are a number of items that need soaking, use a dishpan. Soak about 15 to 30 minutes or during the meal. Then drain the water and wash the dishes and cookware. Some automatic dishwasher detergents may be appropriate for soaking burned-on foods. Be sure to check the label first.

Washing, Rinsing, Drying

First fill the dishpan or sink with water as hot as can be comfortably used, and add enough detergent as the water is running to produce a thick, rich layer of suds. Read the label for the right amount. If rinsing in a separate sink or dishpan, fill it with very hot water.

Washing

Using clean hot water and detergent, start with the lightly soiled items, generally glassware and flatware, followed by plates of various sizes, serving dishes, and finally any remaining cookware not previously washed. Change the dishwashing solution if it becomes greasy, too cool, or the suds disappear. Otherwise, film and soil will not be completely removed.

Handle kitchen knives carefully by their handles; don’t pile them into the sink or dishpan, but wash them one by one and rack them with handles up.

There are several ways to wash dishes. Some people prefer to lift each piece out of the suds to wipe it with a cloth or sponge, others like to keep dishes beneath the suds surface so soil floats away. Some stack dishes in the sink or dishpan, others like to take each piece from the counter, wash it and take another.

Rinsing

The hotter the rinse water, the faster dishes will air dry. After racking dishes, pour or spray hot water over them if they haven’t been dipped in a rinsing sink or pan. Rinse inside cups, bowls and glassware.

Drying

Air drying is easier than towel drying, and may be more sanitary than drying with a soiled towel. However, wiping with a clean towel is particularly useful when glassware or flatware is spotted or filmed. Buffing silverware with a soft, clean, lint-free cloth actually improves its patina. Paper towels are handy for wiping pots and pans, especially any that may leave traces of grease or discolouration on a cloth towel.

Special Tips for Hand Dishwashing

1

When scraping dishes, put food scraps into a plastic bag, garbage disposal, in the sink or directly into a kitchen waste can lined with a bag. Very wet garbage can be drained first in a colander set in the sink, then discarded into a garbage can. Use an empty food can to collect excess grease, pan drippings, or any kind of wet waste.

2

Do not soak cast iron utensils. To retain their “seasoning” and discourage rusting, wash in hot water using a sponge or cloth. Scour stubborn stains with a steel wool soap pad rather than soaking in detergent which removes the built-up fat that seasons the utensil. Rub vegetable oil on any scoured areas to reseason. Dry pans briefly over heat on the range to prevent rusting from moisture.

3

Do not soak aluminum utensils for excessive periods of time, as exposure to water can cause aluminum to darken.

4

Change the dishwashing solution and rinse water when they cool down or before they become noticeably greasy.

5

Clean greasy pan bottoms as well as the insides. If a grease film remains, the bottom will blacken when the pan is used again.

6

Non-stick finishes on pans need a thorough cleaning to retain non-stick performance. Use a plastic mesh scouring pad designed for cleaning non-stick surfaces or a “light duty” plastic-coated sponge, or sprinkle baking soda on the bottom of the pan. Use plenty of hot water and detergent to remove any greasy film.

7

Oven-glass casseroles and dishes can show cloudy areas even when clean. This is usually a food film of protein origin (milk, cheese, egg, meat juice). Rubbing with a sponge or cloth and white vinegar will usually remove the film.

8

When there is illness in a family, such as colds, flu or a communicable disease, doctors often recommend a degree of isolation and use of disposable eating utensils. While careful dishpan practices can help home sanitation, and clean dishes are seldom the carriers of disease organisms, do follow doctor’s advice. A 5-minute soak (after washing) in a solution of 1 tablespoon (15 ml) liquid household (sodium hypochlorite) bleach to 1 gallon (3.8 L) of water should kill household germs. This method is not recommended for silver flatware which may tarnish.

CAUTION: Because of the variety of ingredients in hand dishwashing detergents, check with the detergent manufacturer before mixing sodium hypochlorite bleach and hand dishwashing detergents. Some formulations contain ingredients that are incompatible with the bleach and hazardous gases may be released.